Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Communicating change Essay Example for Free

Communicating change Essay When an organization is undergoing changes, the management must communicate to employees to ensure they support the decision. Changes in an organization may cause conflicts especially when all stakeholders are not aware the new aspects to be adopted. To communicate to employees about the changes when an organization is relocating to another state requires the managers to provide the strategies being adopted to safeguard the interests of employees. The management should consider the welfare of the employees by maintaining the employees while the organization is undergoing change. When an organization relocates its operations from one region to another, the management should support the employees to understand the new systems. Management strategies should be changed to match the current needs of the employees (Burke, 2002). When changes are communicated to employees, they may react to support or reject the new policies. When employees accept change, the management should change its management style by adding more opportunities to improve their morale. When employees reject change, the management should adopt a persuasive strategy where they will influence them to adopt the new policies. Some changes may be compulsory for the management to implement and in such cases, there is no option but to influence employees accept the new strategies. Managers should interact with employees to determine their needs so as to implement acceptable strategies. Teams within the organization should be created to create synergies among the employees during the change process. Team leaders should be elected to support other employees. All members of the organization should hold a general staff meeting to discuss about the new systems to be adopted. The organization should be prepared to provide resources to employees to relocate to the new offices. For example, the costs of carrying out the entire process can be covered by the management (Burke, 2002). Reference Burke, W. W. (2002). Organization change: theory and practice. ISBN 0761914838, Sage.

Monday, October 14, 2019

Causes for Japanese Film Remakes

Causes for Japanese Film Remakes Introduction Since the beginning of the 21st Century a new trend has become commonplace within the Hollywood horror genre, Japanese horror films are being purchased and remade for a new audience, removing the traditional underlying history and Americanising them for western viewers waiting for their next dose of fear and terror. In this dissertation I will explore the reasoning behind this influx of remakes, looking at the important roles people like Roy Lee and Vertigo Entertainment have played in their acceptance and successes. To do this I feel it is important to look at the state Hollywood horror was in before, and how films such as The Ring (2002) and The Grudge (2004) have changed things. As well as this I will look at the differences between J-Horror and its American counterpart, and how these have made them an appealing prospect for remaking. It will also be important for me to look at the academic theories behind remakes, and the different types of remake there are, using the work of Druxman, Leitch and Greenberg to try and help identify the different approaches used by Hollywood directors whilst tackling these projects. As well as investigating into why this has become so popular recently, and what examples there are in the past of similar situations arising, I’ll be attempting to predict how long this will last for, and the problems studios may encounter by doing it on a large scale. I will begin in Chapter One by introducing the work of Michael Druxman, Thomas Leitch and Harvey Roy Greenberg, summarising their writings on the topic of remakes and looking at how they each have different categories of them, depending on the new films style and the way it is released. I will look at Leitch’s theory of the â€Å"triangular relationship† (1990: 139) which helps to explain how remakes differ so much from other versions of adaptation. Along with these categories of remake I will attempt to give examples of different films which fit into the criteria, as well as relating them to the current trend of remaking J-Horror. In Chapter Two I will talk about the differences between Hollywood and Japanese horror styles, looking at both countries long histories in the genre, focussing on things such as folklore and local tradition, trying to discover why the two styles are so different. I will look at the origins and formation of the J-Horror style, along with the key films and directors associated with the movement. Before focussing on Hollywood’s history of remaking, and some of the reasons and thinking behind doing it, looking at films such as Yojimbo (1961) and Shichinin no samurai (Seven Samurai, 1954) as examples of this happening in the past. Chapter Three will be a case study based around Ringu (1998) and The Ring (2002), pointing out the differences and similarities between the two films. Through the use of illustrations I will identify important scenes where Gore Verbinski has either almost copied exactly or drastically altered the shot from Hideo Nakata’s original. I will try to relate my arguments and observations to other contemporary cases of J-Horror remakes, again talking about the cultural differences between the two countries and how in turn that has affected the look and feel of the two films. Finally I will conclude by looking at the future of remaking J-Horror, highlighting future films in development and how Hollywood is now exploiting new markets. I will summarise my findings from previous chapters and use them to try and predict how long this spell of remaking will last for and if it will continue to be as financially successful as it has been so far. Chapter One Categories of Remake Ever since the early days of Hollywood cinema films have been remade, reimagined and adapted for new, ever changing audiences. In most cases it has proven that if a film was successful the first time round a remake will be equally so. The producer or studio make the decision that the original story is still viable (Druxman: 1975: 13) and can once again make big money at the box office. This has led to this trend increasing rapidly over the last few decades, with fresh new material becoming harder to come by. Before I go into detail on the types of remakes and how they relate to the current trend of remaking Asian horror, I must clearly define what a remake actually is. A remake is much more than a film based on an earlier screenplay (Verevis: 2006: 1), as it can be broken down into even more definitions. The sequel/prequel, adaptation, homage, reimagining, film series and the retour aux sourced are all a type of remake (Delaney Potamitis: 2004: 1), with films falling under one of them. Leitch states that the reason remakes differ so much from other adaptations to a new media is due to the â€Å"triangular relationship† (Leitch: 1990: 139) they establish among themselves, the original film and the property in which both are based on. This has come about because typically producers of a remake pay no adaptation fees to the makers of the original film, but instead purchase adaptation rights from the authors of the based on property (Leitch: 1990: 139). This seems strange as it is the two films which will be competing against each other, often being found side by side on store shelves, and not the original property and the remade film (Leitch: 1990: 139). It is often the case that the original film benefits from the release of a remake, as it brings in a fresh audience who are often interested in watching the original film as well. In the case of Ringu, you can clearly see that the theatrical release of its remake caused its popularity to soar higher than ever before [fig 1.1] (pro.imdb.com). Many texts have been written regarding the subject of remaking film, and in particular looking at breaking the remake down into smaller more specific categories. The writings of Robert Eberwein, Michael Druxman, Harvey Roy Greenberg and Thomas Leitch, have defined multiple different types of remade film between them, from the wide and vague to the extremely specific. These books and essays can prove very helpful when comparing remade cinema, especially in trying to identify why the film in question has been remade, and the thinking behind it. I hope to use these definitions to help answer my own question of why there is such a high demand for westernising Japanese horror. In one of the first texts dedicated solely to the subject of the movie remake, Make It Again, Sam, Druxman sets out to answer three questions through the analysis of thirty three films and their remakes (1975: 9). These questions are â€Å"Why was the picture remade?†, â€Å"How was the remake different from the original as far as important story changes were concerned?† and â€Å"What was the critical reaction to the remake?† (Druxman: 1975: 9). When searching for a definition of a â€Å"remakeâ€Å" for his work Druxman decided that he would not take into account obvious sequels to films, and instead focus mainly on those that were based on a â€Å"common literary source† (1975: 9), such as an existing screenplay, novel, play, etc. Three major factors are described as driving â€Å"industry pragmatism† (Verevis: 2006: 5) in regards to Hollywood’s practice of remaking. Druxman argues that the first of these factors is that the studios’ decision to remake is a â€Å"voluntary one† (1975: 13) based on the fact that the script is still relevant today and could prove successful. However during the 1930s and 1940s, in the studio dominated era, they were forced to produce a certain amount of films every year (Druxman: 1975: 13). Producers found themselves with no alternative than to start using previously filmed movies as sources for new â€Å"B† and sometimes top-of-the-bill productions (Verevis: 2006: 6). These updated plots were essentially the same as their predecessor, with just the settings and characters being changed slightly. Druxman’s second point is that it was common practice for studios to purchase rights to plays, novels and stories, so that they could then produce multiple versions of these without giving the copyright holder additional payments (Verevis: 2006: 6). As Literary classics such as Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde and The Three Musketeers where in the public domain, it meant that no initial payment would have to be paid for their dramatic rights (Verevis: 2006: 6). The final factor is simple economics; established films can be redone in order to exploit the ever changing production techniques and movie stars. That is why these old stories were, and will continue to be, constantly resurrected. If a studio has purchased the rights to something they will want to redo and release it as many times as possible in order to maximise their gain. Through Druxman’s definitions and in depth analysis of Hollywood remakes he comes up with three categories which he feels they can fall under; the direct, disguised and the non-remake (Druxman: 1975: 15). The direct remake category contains films that do not even attempt to hide the fact that they are based on earlier productions (Druxman: 1975: 15). Such productions may adopt a new title and make some changes to the narrative image (Verevis: 2006: 7), but it is basically the same film being remade, with not even the publicity campaigns hiding this fact (Druxman: 1975: 15). The main objective of these direct remakes is to draw in two types of cinema viewers. Those who have seen and enjoyed the original, and are curious about this new remake, and those who have heard good things about the original so want to view this version as the older is no longer in circulation (Druxman: 1975: 18). His second category, the disguised remake is a film which is either updated with little change, or completely retitled and then disguised, with the help of a new setting and original characters. (Verevis: 2006: 7). In either case though, the disguised remake doesn’t wish to draw attention to the fact that it’s not an original piece, instead just promoting itself as a normal film. Finally Druxman says there are non-remakes, films retaining the title of a well known story (Druxman: 1975: 15), as well as possibly referring to the name of a well known author, strictly for commercial purposes. Basically all the remake and the original share in common is the title, but the content is extremely different in each case (Verevis: 2006: 7). A perfect example of Druxman’s non-remake would be The Ring Two (2005) as the film shares the same name as its original (in its American release title at least), but that it pretty much where the similarities end. It is interesting to point out that the film is remade by Hideo Nakata, the director behind the original, clearly placing this remake within Robert Stams category of autocitation, in which a film maker remakes his/her own film (Verevis: 2006: 21). A further relevant example of this is Takashi Shimizu’s American film The Grudge a remake of his earlier Japanese language Ju-on: The Grudge (2003). In Harvey Roy Greenberg’s article â€Å"Raiders of the Lost Text: Remaking as Contested Homage in Always†he expands upon Druxman’s â€Å"commercially grounded† (Verevis: 2006: 8) groups and comes up with three categories which instead focus on the directors reasons for remaking a film. His categories center around the example of the romantic war fantasy A Guy Named Joe (1943) and its Steven Spielberg remake, Always (1989). Using this as an example of what Verevis translates as a â€Å"acknowledged, transformed remake† (2006: 9), with the film having huge changes made to the characters, location and general story telling. But still making sure to acknowledge the original, like in the case of Always a small mention is given in the credits. Much like Druxman he also names two other categories in which he feels remakes fall under. The acknowledged, close remake much like Druxman’s direct (1975:15) category, is when a remake completely replicates the original, with little to no change made to its narrative structure (Verevis: 2006: 9), and the unacknowledged, disguised remake is when both minor and major changes are made to the time, settings and characters. But the original version is not referred to and the audience are not informed of there even being one (Verevis: 2006: 9), similar to Druxman’s category of disguised remake. Thomas M. Leitch gives a much â€Å"more developed† (Verevis: 2006: 11) taxonomy of remakes. He claims that remakes seek to define themselves through either primary reference to the original film, or to the material both are adapted from, and there are four possible stances of remake that a film can fall under (Leitch: 1990: 142). The readaptation is the simplest of these stances, ignoring earlier cinematic adaptations in order to readapt an original literary property as faithfully as possible (Verevis: 2006: 12). The readaptations goal is â€Å"fidelity to the original text† (Leitch: 1990: 142), which it aims to translate as thoroughly as possible into the new film medium. Unlike the readaptation, the update competes directly with its literacy source, instead of seeking to subordinate itself to the essence of a literacy classic (Verevis: 2006: 12). They transform the original text through such ways as transposing it to a new setting, changing its values, or making the original seem dated, outmoded or irrelevant (Leitch: 1990: 143). Films such as these updates often display their â€Å"contradictory attitude towards the material† (Leitch: 1990: 143) through their titles and marketing, sometimes even using a tone which verges on parody. For perfect example of this would be Baz Luhrmann’s Romeo + Juliet (1996), a film which takes an established screenplay and changes its meaning, updating it for a new generation. The homage is a type of remake whose primary objective is not to disrespect and put down the original film, but celebrate and pay tribute to it (Leitch: 1990: 144). Much like the readaptation which seeks to direct the audience’s attention to its literacy source (Verevis: 2006: 13), the homage situates itself as a secondary text, with its only value depending on its relation to the original text they pay tribute to (Leitch: 1990: 144). Therefore the homage renounces any claims that it is better than its original and attempts to reintroduce films that are in danger of being lost and forgotten (Leitch: 1990: 144). Leitch’s final category, the true remake is the complete opposite to the homage, claiming that it is better than its original (Verevis: 2006: 13). It focuses on a cinematic original with an accommodating stance and seeks to update the original, making its more relevant to a new modern audience (Leitch: 1990: 145). More than any of the other categories it borrows largely from the unacknowledged film, instead of being a reinvisioning of a literacy text (Leitch: 1990: 145). As well as these three major taxonomies on remakes from Leitch, Druxman and Greenberg, Robert Eberwein has published an elaborate list, proposing fifteen individual categories, each with many subdivisions (Verevis: 2006: 11). Ranging from the obvious such as a silent film remade as a sound film (Eberwein: 1998: 28) to the much more specific, â€Å"A remake that changes the race of the main characters† (Eberwein: 1998: 30). His taxonomy doesn’t address the issue of film adaptations, (Eberwein: 1998: 31) but regardless is a comprehensive and extremely specific list of categories which film can easily be slotted into. Chapter Two Different Styles of Horror It’s fairly clear to see, even to the most casual of audiences that Hollywood and Asia have extremely different styles of horror cinema, focussing on very different aspects and using different techniques to produce an element of fear. The west has a long history of horror cinema, starting with the early gothic in films such as Todd Browning’s Dracula (1931) and James Whales’ Frankenstein (1931), before going through a more paranoid stage focussing on unease and a sense that things are not right in the world, such as John Carpenters Science Fiction horror The Thing (1982). In recent times though â€Å"horror has become the domain of the slasher movie† (Maher: 2005: 14), with the likes of Friday the 13th(1980), Halloween (1978) and A Nightmare on Elm Street (1984) giving rise to a new genre, one which would reshape the future of horror for almost 20 years. Towards the end of the 20th century it had become the norm for horror cinema to be all about multiple grotesque killings, limited back-story and a very formulaic approach to making the films. With the audience expecting certain key things when watching a horror film, such as, big jumpy moments, psycho-killers who never quite die and conventions such as the â€Å"Final Girl†. As Gore Verbinski, director of The Ring puts it â€Å"slasher films contextualise the horror so you watch it, eat your popcorn, go through a few jumps, and then go out for dinner† (O’Toole: 2003: 93), it was no longer fresh and exciting in the way it was in the early 1980s. Wes Craven changed all this in 1996 with the first of his Scream trilogy, the ironic slasher movie has run out of â€Å"nudge-nudge and wink wink† (O’Toole: 2003: 93) and it was now time for a smarter type of horror, one which was very aware of its audience knowing the key conventions, and which would use this to its advantage. The Scream films make use of the previously subtle and covert intertextual references and transform them into a very overt, discursive act. The movie characters knowledge of the horror genre rivals that of this new very aware target audience, and no longer tries to patronise them and act oblivious, with even the rules of horror sequels being discussed in detail in the following Scream 2 (1997) and Scream 3 (2000). The dismantling and parody riddled approach to the slasher genre continued with the Scary Movie (2000) franchise, this time not just giving a smart alternative to current horror cinema but completely mocking every aspect of it. Although these films and there sequels did very well at the box office, they had done serious damage to the American horror genre (Braundu: 2005: 118), the age of the slasher genre was over and Hollywood studios needed to find a way to invent horror for a new audience. In 1998 â€Å"Japanese suspense maestro† (Maher: 2005: 14) Hideo Nakata’s small budget Japanese horror film Ringu had revived a stagnant genre for the country, and had become a â€Å"cinematic phenomenon† (O’Toole: 2003: 93) across Asia, quickly becoming the most successful horror film franchise in Japan’s history. (Arnold: 2002:16) The story of a mysterious video tape which kills everyone who watches it exactly one week later became an underground cult classic within the west (Maher: 2005: 14), providing a kind of deep unsettling horror which had never been seen before. The film is based largely on the book of the same name by Koji Suzuki, who has been dubbed â€Å"the Stephen King of Japan† (O’Toole: 2003: 93), which was published in 1991. Suzuki’s downbeat, everyday settings have proven to translate well into film, (Donald: 2005: 9) with another one of his books, Honogurai mizu no soko kara (Dark Water, 2002) from 1996 also being adapted and remade for an American audience. Roy Lee, arguably the best known go-between in the world of remakes (Frater Kay: 2003: 10) and one half of the new Vertigo Entertainment, was one of the first big name American film producer to watch Ringu and it was this viewing that triggered the start of the Asian remake boom. On Lee’s recommendation the film was watched by Dreamworks Production Executive Walter Parkes and by 7pm that same day they had â€Å"paid $1m for the remake† rights (Frater Kay: 2003: 10). The history of the Japanese horror film is arguably as big as that of Hollywood and the West’s. With its roots firmly set in folklore, myth and urban legend (Langford: 2005: 175) it has progressed from woodblock carvings, to Kabuki theatre and finally to motion picture cinema. The main premise of the horror is based around the ghost story, at least up until the late 20th century. Story’s known as Kaidan (literally translated to â€Å"tail of a strange apparition†) originating from the Edo and Meiji period where passed down from generation to generation, retold in an ever changing medium (Stamou: 2007). The average Japanese person is more inclined to believe in ghosts than not, due to the culture and the way they are constantly exposed to these tales of terror. They believe that spirits inhabit absolutely everything (Rucka: 2005) and because of this don’t regard them as enemies, but as just another thing which co-exists within their world (Kermode: 2005). As Walter Salles, director of Dark Water (2005) puts it, â€Å"they don’t question it the way we question it, it’s much more a part of their world† (Kermode: 2005). Due to the unquestioning of the paranormal and the Buddhist and ShintÃ…Â  religious followings they are much more acceptant to the idea of life after death. This view of life, death and the afterlife is the fundamental difference between Japanese horror and its western counterpart, and where all the other differences stem from (Rucka: 2005). As Hideo Nakata says, â€Å"when making horror films, the methods of describing the spirit world and the expression of horror are totally different between Japan and the West† (Kermode: 2005). As is common within the Japanese language there are names for multiple different types of ghost and spirit. The ghosts and demons of the ancient period tales where known as the Yurei (lean ghost), the Zashiki-warashi is a dead child’s ghost, like the character of Toshio in Ju-on: The Grudge. One of the most common kinds of ghost though is the OnryÃ…Â  (resentful spirit), a spirit trapped at Yomi (Japanese purgatory) who comes back to earth looking for revenge (Stamou: 2007). Although not limited to being female, such as Rentaro Mikuni’s husband character in Kwaidan (1964) for example, the majority of them are (Wilks: 2006). It is this image of the OnryÃ…Â  which comes to mind when you think of Japanese horror, the female spirit gowned in snow-white, with its long black hair obscuring its face. This is mainly due to the new wave of Japanese directors such as, Takashi Miike (Ôdishon, 1999), Hideo Nakata (Ringu), Takashi Shimizu (Ju-on: The Grudge) and Kiyoshi Kurosawa (Kairo, 2001) using it at every opportunity, making it as â€Å"iconic in horror cinema as the projectile-vomiting, spinning head† (Wilks: 2006). 1964 saw the release of what many regard as one of Japans greatest horrors, Kaidan (Kwaidan, 1964). Directed by Masaki Kobayashi and based on four short stories by author Lafcadio Hearn, it uses abstract use of lighting and sound, creatively staged and shot in vibrant colours (Rucka: 2005). Keiko Kishi’s performance as Yuki The Ice Maiden sparked such terror within the Japanese population, that now only the passing glimpse of the likes of Sadako in Ringu and Kayako in Ju-on: The Grudge ignite utmost fright, due to the accumulated cultural knowledge of this character (Wilks: 2006). After years of Japanese horror plodding along in a stale state, influenced more by American slashers than its own rich heritage, a young director called Norio Tsurta decided he had had enough and it was time for a change. Japan was no longer the fantastically safe country it once was, and the Japanese people were starting to feel the ills of the outside world encroaching on them (Lovgren: 2004), and this was starting to be shown through their cinema. Tsurta’s Honto ni atta kowai hanashi (Scary True Stories, 1991) was the first of these, providing through low budget production, the look, mood and style which would later be known as J-Horror (Rucka: 2005). The term J-Horror was originally coined as a cult fan term (Rucka: 2005) for the post Ringu horror cinema which was coming out of Japan, although now it is often wrongly used to define Japanese horror as a whole. This revitalised horror scene fronted largely by Hideo Nakata after the phenomenal success of his film Ringu, completely revived the Japanese horror scene and caught the eye of film fans and studios all around the world. The common theme within J-Horror is once again ghosts, OnryÃ…Â  and the supernatural, but other more violent torture based films can also be included under the banner, for example Takashi Miike’s Ôdishon (Audition). For the most part though the films were very similar in style and overall theme to each other, with the following being the most notable examples; Nakata’s Ringu, Kaosu (Chaos, 1999), Ringu 2 (1999) and Honogurai mizu no soko kara. Takashi Shimizu’s Ju-on: The Curse (2000), Ju-on: The Curse 2 (2000), Ju-on: The Grudge, Ju-on: The Grudge 2 (2003), Marebito (2004) and Rinne (Reincarnation, 2005). Kiyoshi Kurosawa’s Kyua (Cure, 1997), Kairo (Pulse, 2001) and Sakebi (Retribution, 2006), and Takashi Miike’s Chakushin ari (One Missed Call, 2004). The Japanese horror style has an â€Å"eerie ambient quality† (Maher: 14: 2005) about it which differs largely from its western counterpart. As noted previously, in the traditional Japanese horror movie the â€Å"past haunts the present, invariably taking the form of the supernatural† (Schneider and Williams: 6: 2005). Where, as director Rob Zombie (Halloween, 2007) points out, in American horror â€Å"you’ve gotta kill someone in the first five seconds† (Chaffin: 2005). J-Horror takes a very different approach to this, focussing on delivering heavy â€Å"atmosphere, nuance and ambiguity† (Chaffin: 2005), instead of raw grotesque gore, mainly due to the fact that the Japanese audience is much more tolerant of it (Phelan: 10: 2005). In Japanese horror films there’s much more of an acceptance towards the irrational and the unexplained (Lovgren: 2004). Nakata says that the ghost need do nothing more than â€Å"stand behind and stare at the main character† (Davies: 2005) to create fear amongst the audience, it all comes from sounds, shadows and suggestions, you don’t need â€Å"a 3D creature lopping people’s heads off† (Lovgren: 2004). Takashi Shimizu compares the current J-Horror style to films by American director John Carpenter, such as The Thing (1982) and Halloween. Saying that â€Å"just the suggestion of the presence of a ghost is frightening† (Dixon: 7: 2005), whereas Sarah Michelle-Gellar, star of The Grudge, describes Asian horror as being â€Å"much more beautiful, more poetic, leaving much more to the imagination† (Baughan: 78: 2005), a view which seems to be shared by many. Western horror plots normally evolve around the idea that the characters discover the cause of the horror and then destroy it, but J-Horror works very differently to this. As Stephen Susco, the writer in charge of translating Ju-on: The Grudge for the remake puts it, Asian horror is more â€Å"like a haunted house that follows you† (Kay: 7: 2004), there’s no limits or barriers to the horror. For example in Ringu where Sadako Yamamura climbs out of the television set, breaching any line which might keep you safe. In the west a ghost is often required to want something much more meaningful and have a deeper back-story, whereas â€Å"in Japan a ghost may simply want to terrify and destroy† (Phelan: 10: 2005). It’s the little differences like this which make these variations on the horror genre so different, where Hollywood mostly relies on over the top multiple sequences of death, Japan still has its roots firmly placed amongst the aesthetics of folklore, Japanese Noh and Kabuki theatre (McRoy: 214: 2006). Although history would suggest that Europe was the first stop of film makers and studio’s looking to remake a movie for a world audience, Japan has long been a â€Å"happy hunting ground for Hollywood remakers† (Shackleton Schilling: 2003: 17). First beginning in 1960 with The Magnificent Seven, John Sturges’ classic remake of the cult hit Shichinin no samurai, and then followed by Sergio Leone’s A Fistful of Dollars (1964), a remake of the Japanese film Yojimbo. In fact Yojimbo was remade once again in 1996 in the Bruce Willis lead crime drama Last Man Standing, a tribute to Akira Kurosawa’s screenplay that it was still deemed worthy of a remake over 30 years later. Literally the largest example of Hollywood remaking a Japanese movie though is Godzilla (1998), Roland Emmerich’s re-envisioning of the then twenty two film monster series, beginning in 1954 with Goijira (Godzilla). It was this film which became one of the first early examples of a foreign film becoming â€Å"Americanised†, even though it was given a (very limited) subtitled theatrical run it was still remade two years later as Godzilla, King of the Monsters! (1956), with numerous new scenes shot and inserted into the original Japanese film, completely changing the plot and removing any real trace that it was a foreign made production (godzylla.com). As Mike Macari, Fine Line’s Creative Executive and avid Asian film fanatic, states Hollywood has always had the ability to â€Å"import foreign ideas and re-export them to a world market† (Frater Kay: 2003: 9), remakes have always been a very important part of American film making, but in the last ten years this is becoming even more so. As the mainstream Hollywood audiences’ become bored and overexposed to the current market the studios are forced to look elsewhere for inspiration, Walter Parkes says that Hollywood’s â€Å"voracious appetite† (Frater Kay: 2003: 9) will look wherever it can for new material and inspiration. American children have been â€Å"growing up on Pokemon, Japanese anime and manga† (Frater Kay: 2003: 9) for the past ten years, which has meant that as they become adults they’ve become more accustomed to the Japanese style, whereas fifteen years ago they wouldn’t be so open to it. Roy Lee states that he looks for â€Å"something new and fresh in the story that will appeal to a wider audience† (Paquet: 2003: 15), as long as it has an original concept and several strong scenes Hollywood can see potential in it for a remake. â€Å"Hollywood is a machine† (Maher: 2005: 14) and has proven that it can translate even the most cultural specific film into a box office success. Chapter Three Case Study As previously mentioned Hideo Nakata’s Ringu became the first film associated with the style of movie which would later be described as J-Horror. It came up with a fresh and exciting approach to its genre which would not only be used as a template for its western remakes, but the stream of replicas which would follow it in Japan. In this chapter I will be looking at the film in much more detail, comparing and contrasting it to Gore Verbinski’s Hollywood remake The Ring, in an attempt to identify how truthful it stays to the original, which parts are changed and westernised, and why this is the case. Although I am using Ringu/The Ring as my main example, mainly due to the fact that it was the first contemporary case of remaking Japanese horror, I will try to relate my arguments and observations to other films and Causes for Japanese Film Remakes Causes for Japanese Film Remakes Introduction Since the beginning of the 21st Century a new trend has become commonplace within the Hollywood horror genre, Japanese horror films are being purchased and remade for a new audience, removing the traditional underlying history and Americanising them for western viewers waiting for their next dose of fear and terror. In this dissertation I will explore the reasoning behind this influx of remakes, looking at the important roles people like Roy Lee and Vertigo Entertainment have played in their acceptance and successes. To do this I feel it is important to look at the state Hollywood horror was in before, and how films such as The Ring (2002) and The Grudge (2004) have changed things. As well as this I will look at the differences between J-Horror and its American counterpart, and how these have made them an appealing prospect for remaking. It will also be important for me to look at the academic theories behind remakes, and the different types of remake there are, using the work of Druxman, Leitch and Greenberg to try and help identify the different approaches used by Hollywood directors whilst tackling these projects. As well as investigating into why this has become so popular recently, and what examples there are in the past of similar situations arising, I’ll be attempting to predict how long this will last for, and the problems studios may encounter by doing it on a large scale. I will begin in Chapter One by introducing the work of Michael Druxman, Thomas Leitch and Harvey Roy Greenberg, summarising their writings on the topic of remakes and looking at how they each have different categories of them, depending on the new films style and the way it is released. I will look at Leitch’s theory of the â€Å"triangular relationship† (1990: 139) which helps to explain how remakes differ so much from other versions of adaptation. Along with these categories of remake I will attempt to give examples of different films which fit into the criteria, as well as relating them to the current trend of remaking J-Horror. In Chapter Two I will talk about the differences between Hollywood and Japanese horror styles, looking at both countries long histories in the genre, focussing on things such as folklore and local tradition, trying to discover why the two styles are so different. I will look at the origins and formation of the J-Horror style, along with the key films and directors associated with the movement. Before focussing on Hollywood’s history of remaking, and some of the reasons and thinking behind doing it, looking at films such as Yojimbo (1961) and Shichinin no samurai (Seven Samurai, 1954) as examples of this happening in the past. Chapter Three will be a case study based around Ringu (1998) and The Ring (2002), pointing out the differences and similarities between the two films. Through the use of illustrations I will identify important scenes where Gore Verbinski has either almost copied exactly or drastically altered the shot from Hideo Nakata’s original. I will try to relate my arguments and observations to other contemporary cases of J-Horror remakes, again talking about the cultural differences between the two countries and how in turn that has affected the look and feel of the two films. Finally I will conclude by looking at the future of remaking J-Horror, highlighting future films in development and how Hollywood is now exploiting new markets. I will summarise my findings from previous chapters and use them to try and predict how long this spell of remaking will last for and if it will continue to be as financially successful as it has been so far. Chapter One Categories of Remake Ever since the early days of Hollywood cinema films have been remade, reimagined and adapted for new, ever changing audiences. In most cases it has proven that if a film was successful the first time round a remake will be equally so. The producer or studio make the decision that the original story is still viable (Druxman: 1975: 13) and can once again make big money at the box office. This has led to this trend increasing rapidly over the last few decades, with fresh new material becoming harder to come by. Before I go into detail on the types of remakes and how they relate to the current trend of remaking Asian horror, I must clearly define what a remake actually is. A remake is much more than a film based on an earlier screenplay (Verevis: 2006: 1), as it can be broken down into even more definitions. The sequel/prequel, adaptation, homage, reimagining, film series and the retour aux sourced are all a type of remake (Delaney Potamitis: 2004: 1), with films falling under one of them. Leitch states that the reason remakes differ so much from other adaptations to a new media is due to the â€Å"triangular relationship† (Leitch: 1990: 139) they establish among themselves, the original film and the property in which both are based on. This has come about because typically producers of a remake pay no adaptation fees to the makers of the original film, but instead purchase adaptation rights from the authors of the based on property (Leitch: 1990: 139). This seems strange as it is the two films which will be competing against each other, often being found side by side on store shelves, and not the original property and the remade film (Leitch: 1990: 139). It is often the case that the original film benefits from the release of a remake, as it brings in a fresh audience who are often interested in watching the original film as well. In the case of Ringu, you can clearly see that the theatrical release of its remake caused its popularity to soar higher than ever before [fig 1.1] (pro.imdb.com). Many texts have been written regarding the subject of remaking film, and in particular looking at breaking the remake down into smaller more specific categories. The writings of Robert Eberwein, Michael Druxman, Harvey Roy Greenberg and Thomas Leitch, have defined multiple different types of remade film between them, from the wide and vague to the extremely specific. These books and essays can prove very helpful when comparing remade cinema, especially in trying to identify why the film in question has been remade, and the thinking behind it. I hope to use these definitions to help answer my own question of why there is such a high demand for westernising Japanese horror. In one of the first texts dedicated solely to the subject of the movie remake, Make It Again, Sam, Druxman sets out to answer three questions through the analysis of thirty three films and their remakes (1975: 9). These questions are â€Å"Why was the picture remade?†, â€Å"How was the remake different from the original as far as important story changes were concerned?† and â€Å"What was the critical reaction to the remake?† (Druxman: 1975: 9). When searching for a definition of a â€Å"remakeâ€Å" for his work Druxman decided that he would not take into account obvious sequels to films, and instead focus mainly on those that were based on a â€Å"common literary source† (1975: 9), such as an existing screenplay, novel, play, etc. Three major factors are described as driving â€Å"industry pragmatism† (Verevis: 2006: 5) in regards to Hollywood’s practice of remaking. Druxman argues that the first of these factors is that the studios’ decision to remake is a â€Å"voluntary one† (1975: 13) based on the fact that the script is still relevant today and could prove successful. However during the 1930s and 1940s, in the studio dominated era, they were forced to produce a certain amount of films every year (Druxman: 1975: 13). Producers found themselves with no alternative than to start using previously filmed movies as sources for new â€Å"B† and sometimes top-of-the-bill productions (Verevis: 2006: 6). These updated plots were essentially the same as their predecessor, with just the settings and characters being changed slightly. Druxman’s second point is that it was common practice for studios to purchase rights to plays, novels and stories, so that they could then produce multiple versions of these without giving the copyright holder additional payments (Verevis: 2006: 6). As Literary classics such as Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde and The Three Musketeers where in the public domain, it meant that no initial payment would have to be paid for their dramatic rights (Verevis: 2006: 6). The final factor is simple economics; established films can be redone in order to exploit the ever changing production techniques and movie stars. That is why these old stories were, and will continue to be, constantly resurrected. If a studio has purchased the rights to something they will want to redo and release it as many times as possible in order to maximise their gain. Through Druxman’s definitions and in depth analysis of Hollywood remakes he comes up with three categories which he feels they can fall under; the direct, disguised and the non-remake (Druxman: 1975: 15). The direct remake category contains films that do not even attempt to hide the fact that they are based on earlier productions (Druxman: 1975: 15). Such productions may adopt a new title and make some changes to the narrative image (Verevis: 2006: 7), but it is basically the same film being remade, with not even the publicity campaigns hiding this fact (Druxman: 1975: 15). The main objective of these direct remakes is to draw in two types of cinema viewers. Those who have seen and enjoyed the original, and are curious about this new remake, and those who have heard good things about the original so want to view this version as the older is no longer in circulation (Druxman: 1975: 18). His second category, the disguised remake is a film which is either updated with little change, or completely retitled and then disguised, with the help of a new setting and original characters. (Verevis: 2006: 7). In either case though, the disguised remake doesn’t wish to draw attention to the fact that it’s not an original piece, instead just promoting itself as a normal film. Finally Druxman says there are non-remakes, films retaining the title of a well known story (Druxman: 1975: 15), as well as possibly referring to the name of a well known author, strictly for commercial purposes. Basically all the remake and the original share in common is the title, but the content is extremely different in each case (Verevis: 2006: 7). A perfect example of Druxman’s non-remake would be The Ring Two (2005) as the film shares the same name as its original (in its American release title at least), but that it pretty much where the similarities end. It is interesting to point out that the film is remade by Hideo Nakata, the director behind the original, clearly placing this remake within Robert Stams category of autocitation, in which a film maker remakes his/her own film (Verevis: 2006: 21). A further relevant example of this is Takashi Shimizu’s American film The Grudge a remake of his earlier Japanese language Ju-on: The Grudge (2003). In Harvey Roy Greenberg’s article â€Å"Raiders of the Lost Text: Remaking as Contested Homage in Always†he expands upon Druxman’s â€Å"commercially grounded† (Verevis: 2006: 8) groups and comes up with three categories which instead focus on the directors reasons for remaking a film. His categories center around the example of the romantic war fantasy A Guy Named Joe (1943) and its Steven Spielberg remake, Always (1989). Using this as an example of what Verevis translates as a â€Å"acknowledged, transformed remake† (2006: 9), with the film having huge changes made to the characters, location and general story telling. But still making sure to acknowledge the original, like in the case of Always a small mention is given in the credits. Much like Druxman he also names two other categories in which he feels remakes fall under. The acknowledged, close remake much like Druxman’s direct (1975:15) category, is when a remake completely replicates the original, with little to no change made to its narrative structure (Verevis: 2006: 9), and the unacknowledged, disguised remake is when both minor and major changes are made to the time, settings and characters. But the original version is not referred to and the audience are not informed of there even being one (Verevis: 2006: 9), similar to Druxman’s category of disguised remake. Thomas M. Leitch gives a much â€Å"more developed† (Verevis: 2006: 11) taxonomy of remakes. He claims that remakes seek to define themselves through either primary reference to the original film, or to the material both are adapted from, and there are four possible stances of remake that a film can fall under (Leitch: 1990: 142). The readaptation is the simplest of these stances, ignoring earlier cinematic adaptations in order to readapt an original literary property as faithfully as possible (Verevis: 2006: 12). The readaptations goal is â€Å"fidelity to the original text† (Leitch: 1990: 142), which it aims to translate as thoroughly as possible into the new film medium. Unlike the readaptation, the update competes directly with its literacy source, instead of seeking to subordinate itself to the essence of a literacy classic (Verevis: 2006: 12). They transform the original text through such ways as transposing it to a new setting, changing its values, or making the original seem dated, outmoded or irrelevant (Leitch: 1990: 143). Films such as these updates often display their â€Å"contradictory attitude towards the material† (Leitch: 1990: 143) through their titles and marketing, sometimes even using a tone which verges on parody. For perfect example of this would be Baz Luhrmann’s Romeo + Juliet (1996), a film which takes an established screenplay and changes its meaning, updating it for a new generation. The homage is a type of remake whose primary objective is not to disrespect and put down the original film, but celebrate and pay tribute to it (Leitch: 1990: 144). Much like the readaptation which seeks to direct the audience’s attention to its literacy source (Verevis: 2006: 13), the homage situates itself as a secondary text, with its only value depending on its relation to the original text they pay tribute to (Leitch: 1990: 144). Therefore the homage renounces any claims that it is better than its original and attempts to reintroduce films that are in danger of being lost and forgotten (Leitch: 1990: 144). Leitch’s final category, the true remake is the complete opposite to the homage, claiming that it is better than its original (Verevis: 2006: 13). It focuses on a cinematic original with an accommodating stance and seeks to update the original, making its more relevant to a new modern audience (Leitch: 1990: 145). More than any of the other categories it borrows largely from the unacknowledged film, instead of being a reinvisioning of a literacy text (Leitch: 1990: 145). As well as these three major taxonomies on remakes from Leitch, Druxman and Greenberg, Robert Eberwein has published an elaborate list, proposing fifteen individual categories, each with many subdivisions (Verevis: 2006: 11). Ranging from the obvious such as a silent film remade as a sound film (Eberwein: 1998: 28) to the much more specific, â€Å"A remake that changes the race of the main characters† (Eberwein: 1998: 30). His taxonomy doesn’t address the issue of film adaptations, (Eberwein: 1998: 31) but regardless is a comprehensive and extremely specific list of categories which film can easily be slotted into. Chapter Two Different Styles of Horror It’s fairly clear to see, even to the most casual of audiences that Hollywood and Asia have extremely different styles of horror cinema, focussing on very different aspects and using different techniques to produce an element of fear. The west has a long history of horror cinema, starting with the early gothic in films such as Todd Browning’s Dracula (1931) and James Whales’ Frankenstein (1931), before going through a more paranoid stage focussing on unease and a sense that things are not right in the world, such as John Carpenters Science Fiction horror The Thing (1982). In recent times though â€Å"horror has become the domain of the slasher movie† (Maher: 2005: 14), with the likes of Friday the 13th(1980), Halloween (1978) and A Nightmare on Elm Street (1984) giving rise to a new genre, one which would reshape the future of horror for almost 20 years. Towards the end of the 20th century it had become the norm for horror cinema to be all about multiple grotesque killings, limited back-story and a very formulaic approach to making the films. With the audience expecting certain key things when watching a horror film, such as, big jumpy moments, psycho-killers who never quite die and conventions such as the â€Å"Final Girl†. As Gore Verbinski, director of The Ring puts it â€Å"slasher films contextualise the horror so you watch it, eat your popcorn, go through a few jumps, and then go out for dinner† (O’Toole: 2003: 93), it was no longer fresh and exciting in the way it was in the early 1980s. Wes Craven changed all this in 1996 with the first of his Scream trilogy, the ironic slasher movie has run out of â€Å"nudge-nudge and wink wink† (O’Toole: 2003: 93) and it was now time for a smarter type of horror, one which was very aware of its audience knowing the key conventions, and which would use this to its advantage. The Scream films make use of the previously subtle and covert intertextual references and transform them into a very overt, discursive act. The movie characters knowledge of the horror genre rivals that of this new very aware target audience, and no longer tries to patronise them and act oblivious, with even the rules of horror sequels being discussed in detail in the following Scream 2 (1997) and Scream 3 (2000). The dismantling and parody riddled approach to the slasher genre continued with the Scary Movie (2000) franchise, this time not just giving a smart alternative to current horror cinema but completely mocking every aspect of it. Although these films and there sequels did very well at the box office, they had done serious damage to the American horror genre (Braundu: 2005: 118), the age of the slasher genre was over and Hollywood studios needed to find a way to invent horror for a new audience. In 1998 â€Å"Japanese suspense maestro† (Maher: 2005: 14) Hideo Nakata’s small budget Japanese horror film Ringu had revived a stagnant genre for the country, and had become a â€Å"cinematic phenomenon† (O’Toole: 2003: 93) across Asia, quickly becoming the most successful horror film franchise in Japan’s history. (Arnold: 2002:16) The story of a mysterious video tape which kills everyone who watches it exactly one week later became an underground cult classic within the west (Maher: 2005: 14), providing a kind of deep unsettling horror which had never been seen before. The film is based largely on the book of the same name by Koji Suzuki, who has been dubbed â€Å"the Stephen King of Japan† (O’Toole: 2003: 93), which was published in 1991. Suzuki’s downbeat, everyday settings have proven to translate well into film, (Donald: 2005: 9) with another one of his books, Honogurai mizu no soko kara (Dark Water, 2002) from 1996 also being adapted and remade for an American audience. Roy Lee, arguably the best known go-between in the world of remakes (Frater Kay: 2003: 10) and one half of the new Vertigo Entertainment, was one of the first big name American film producer to watch Ringu and it was this viewing that triggered the start of the Asian remake boom. On Lee’s recommendation the film was watched by Dreamworks Production Executive Walter Parkes and by 7pm that same day they had â€Å"paid $1m for the remake† rights (Frater Kay: 2003: 10). The history of the Japanese horror film is arguably as big as that of Hollywood and the West’s. With its roots firmly set in folklore, myth and urban legend (Langford: 2005: 175) it has progressed from woodblock carvings, to Kabuki theatre and finally to motion picture cinema. The main premise of the horror is based around the ghost story, at least up until the late 20th century. Story’s known as Kaidan (literally translated to â€Å"tail of a strange apparition†) originating from the Edo and Meiji period where passed down from generation to generation, retold in an ever changing medium (Stamou: 2007). The average Japanese person is more inclined to believe in ghosts than not, due to the culture and the way they are constantly exposed to these tales of terror. They believe that spirits inhabit absolutely everything (Rucka: 2005) and because of this don’t regard them as enemies, but as just another thing which co-exists within their world (Kermode: 2005). As Walter Salles, director of Dark Water (2005) puts it, â€Å"they don’t question it the way we question it, it’s much more a part of their world† (Kermode: 2005). Due to the unquestioning of the paranormal and the Buddhist and ShintÃ…Â  religious followings they are much more acceptant to the idea of life after death. This view of life, death and the afterlife is the fundamental difference between Japanese horror and its western counterpart, and where all the other differences stem from (Rucka: 2005). As Hideo Nakata says, â€Å"when making horror films, the methods of describing the spirit world and the expression of horror are totally different between Japan and the West† (Kermode: 2005). As is common within the Japanese language there are names for multiple different types of ghost and spirit. The ghosts and demons of the ancient period tales where known as the Yurei (lean ghost), the Zashiki-warashi is a dead child’s ghost, like the character of Toshio in Ju-on: The Grudge. One of the most common kinds of ghost though is the OnryÃ…Â  (resentful spirit), a spirit trapped at Yomi (Japanese purgatory) who comes back to earth looking for revenge (Stamou: 2007). Although not limited to being female, such as Rentaro Mikuni’s husband character in Kwaidan (1964) for example, the majority of them are (Wilks: 2006). It is this image of the OnryÃ…Â  which comes to mind when you think of Japanese horror, the female spirit gowned in snow-white, with its long black hair obscuring its face. This is mainly due to the new wave of Japanese directors such as, Takashi Miike (Ôdishon, 1999), Hideo Nakata (Ringu), Takashi Shimizu (Ju-on: The Grudge) and Kiyoshi Kurosawa (Kairo, 2001) using it at every opportunity, making it as â€Å"iconic in horror cinema as the projectile-vomiting, spinning head† (Wilks: 2006). 1964 saw the release of what many regard as one of Japans greatest horrors, Kaidan (Kwaidan, 1964). Directed by Masaki Kobayashi and based on four short stories by author Lafcadio Hearn, it uses abstract use of lighting and sound, creatively staged and shot in vibrant colours (Rucka: 2005). Keiko Kishi’s performance as Yuki The Ice Maiden sparked such terror within the Japanese population, that now only the passing glimpse of the likes of Sadako in Ringu and Kayako in Ju-on: The Grudge ignite utmost fright, due to the accumulated cultural knowledge of this character (Wilks: 2006). After years of Japanese horror plodding along in a stale state, influenced more by American slashers than its own rich heritage, a young director called Norio Tsurta decided he had had enough and it was time for a change. Japan was no longer the fantastically safe country it once was, and the Japanese people were starting to feel the ills of the outside world encroaching on them (Lovgren: 2004), and this was starting to be shown through their cinema. Tsurta’s Honto ni atta kowai hanashi (Scary True Stories, 1991) was the first of these, providing through low budget production, the look, mood and style which would later be known as J-Horror (Rucka: 2005). The term J-Horror was originally coined as a cult fan term (Rucka: 2005) for the post Ringu horror cinema which was coming out of Japan, although now it is often wrongly used to define Japanese horror as a whole. This revitalised horror scene fronted largely by Hideo Nakata after the phenomenal success of his film Ringu, completely revived the Japanese horror scene and caught the eye of film fans and studios all around the world. The common theme within J-Horror is once again ghosts, OnryÃ…Â  and the supernatural, but other more violent torture based films can also be included under the banner, for example Takashi Miike’s Ôdishon (Audition). For the most part though the films were very similar in style and overall theme to each other, with the following being the most notable examples; Nakata’s Ringu, Kaosu (Chaos, 1999), Ringu 2 (1999) and Honogurai mizu no soko kara. Takashi Shimizu’s Ju-on: The Curse (2000), Ju-on: The Curse 2 (2000), Ju-on: The Grudge, Ju-on: The Grudge 2 (2003), Marebito (2004) and Rinne (Reincarnation, 2005). Kiyoshi Kurosawa’s Kyua (Cure, 1997), Kairo (Pulse, 2001) and Sakebi (Retribution, 2006), and Takashi Miike’s Chakushin ari (One Missed Call, 2004). The Japanese horror style has an â€Å"eerie ambient quality† (Maher: 14: 2005) about it which differs largely from its western counterpart. As noted previously, in the traditional Japanese horror movie the â€Å"past haunts the present, invariably taking the form of the supernatural† (Schneider and Williams: 6: 2005). Where, as director Rob Zombie (Halloween, 2007) points out, in American horror â€Å"you’ve gotta kill someone in the first five seconds† (Chaffin: 2005). J-Horror takes a very different approach to this, focussing on delivering heavy â€Å"atmosphere, nuance and ambiguity† (Chaffin: 2005), instead of raw grotesque gore, mainly due to the fact that the Japanese audience is much more tolerant of it (Phelan: 10: 2005). In Japanese horror films there’s much more of an acceptance towards the irrational and the unexplained (Lovgren: 2004). Nakata says that the ghost need do nothing more than â€Å"stand behind and stare at the main character† (Davies: 2005) to create fear amongst the audience, it all comes from sounds, shadows and suggestions, you don’t need â€Å"a 3D creature lopping people’s heads off† (Lovgren: 2004). Takashi Shimizu compares the current J-Horror style to films by American director John Carpenter, such as The Thing (1982) and Halloween. Saying that â€Å"just the suggestion of the presence of a ghost is frightening† (Dixon: 7: 2005), whereas Sarah Michelle-Gellar, star of The Grudge, describes Asian horror as being â€Å"much more beautiful, more poetic, leaving much more to the imagination† (Baughan: 78: 2005), a view which seems to be shared by many. Western horror plots normally evolve around the idea that the characters discover the cause of the horror and then destroy it, but J-Horror works very differently to this. As Stephen Susco, the writer in charge of translating Ju-on: The Grudge for the remake puts it, Asian horror is more â€Å"like a haunted house that follows you† (Kay: 7: 2004), there’s no limits or barriers to the horror. For example in Ringu where Sadako Yamamura climbs out of the television set, breaching any line which might keep you safe. In the west a ghost is often required to want something much more meaningful and have a deeper back-story, whereas â€Å"in Japan a ghost may simply want to terrify and destroy† (Phelan: 10: 2005). It’s the little differences like this which make these variations on the horror genre so different, where Hollywood mostly relies on over the top multiple sequences of death, Japan still has its roots firmly placed amongst the aesthetics of folklore, Japanese Noh and Kabuki theatre (McRoy: 214: 2006). Although history would suggest that Europe was the first stop of film makers and studio’s looking to remake a movie for a world audience, Japan has long been a â€Å"happy hunting ground for Hollywood remakers† (Shackleton Schilling: 2003: 17). First beginning in 1960 with The Magnificent Seven, John Sturges’ classic remake of the cult hit Shichinin no samurai, and then followed by Sergio Leone’s A Fistful of Dollars (1964), a remake of the Japanese film Yojimbo. In fact Yojimbo was remade once again in 1996 in the Bruce Willis lead crime drama Last Man Standing, a tribute to Akira Kurosawa’s screenplay that it was still deemed worthy of a remake over 30 years later. Literally the largest example of Hollywood remaking a Japanese movie though is Godzilla (1998), Roland Emmerich’s re-envisioning of the then twenty two film monster series, beginning in 1954 with Goijira (Godzilla). It was this film which became one of the first early examples of a foreign film becoming â€Å"Americanised†, even though it was given a (very limited) subtitled theatrical run it was still remade two years later as Godzilla, King of the Monsters! (1956), with numerous new scenes shot and inserted into the original Japanese film, completely changing the plot and removing any real trace that it was a foreign made production (godzylla.com). As Mike Macari, Fine Line’s Creative Executive and avid Asian film fanatic, states Hollywood has always had the ability to â€Å"import foreign ideas and re-export them to a world market† (Frater Kay: 2003: 9), remakes have always been a very important part of American film making, but in the last ten years this is becoming even more so. As the mainstream Hollywood audiences’ become bored and overexposed to the current market the studios are forced to look elsewhere for inspiration, Walter Parkes says that Hollywood’s â€Å"voracious appetite† (Frater Kay: 2003: 9) will look wherever it can for new material and inspiration. American children have been â€Å"growing up on Pokemon, Japanese anime and manga† (Frater Kay: 2003: 9) for the past ten years, which has meant that as they become adults they’ve become more accustomed to the Japanese style, whereas fifteen years ago they wouldn’t be so open to it. Roy Lee states that he looks for â€Å"something new and fresh in the story that will appeal to a wider audience† (Paquet: 2003: 15), as long as it has an original concept and several strong scenes Hollywood can see potential in it for a remake. â€Å"Hollywood is a machine† (Maher: 2005: 14) and has proven that it can translate even the most cultural specific film into a box office success. Chapter Three Case Study As previously mentioned Hideo Nakata’s Ringu became the first film associated with the style of movie which would later be described as J-Horror. It came up with a fresh and exciting approach to its genre which would not only be used as a template for its western remakes, but the stream of replicas which would follow it in Japan. In this chapter I will be looking at the film in much more detail, comparing and contrasting it to Gore Verbinski’s Hollywood remake The Ring, in an attempt to identify how truthful it stays to the original, which parts are changed and westernised, and why this is the case. Although I am using Ringu/The Ring as my main example, mainly due to the fact that it was the first contemporary case of remaking Japanese horror, I will try to relate my arguments and observations to other films and

Sunday, October 13, 2019

god? :: essays research papers

Many people have tried to prove through many ways that God exists. Anselm used the ontological argument, proposing that if God could be thought of and perceived, then God has to exist. At the center of the ontological argument is the idea or concept of existence. The Ontological argument is a group of different philosophers arguments for the existence of God. "Ontological" means talking about being and so in the Philosophy case, that being is the existence or being of God. The ontological argument differs from other arguments in favor of God because of the fact that it is an a priori deductive argument, a priori means that a person arguing this can reach a certain conclusion by the use of reason and not proof. A deductive argument means that if the premises that are put into the argument are true, then the conclusion must be true. Thus, Anselm tends to base his argument on the definitions and the terms that he used. Anselm’s first form of the argument is that God is "that than which none greater can be conceived" (45) . Firstly, it must be emphasised that Anselm’s definition does not limit God to being the "greatest" but Anselem makes it known that nothing greater can be thought than God himself. Therefore, God should not in any way be linked to terms such as ‘omnipotent’ as terminology such as this limit him to what he really is. With this definition, Anselem tries to prove that not only does God exist in the mind but also in reality. He is saying that Because God is something and can be perceived, God must exist. Another way of stating this is that: God is perfect so he must exist because he would not be perfect if he didn't exist. Anselm uses the example of "the fool" to prove his point on God’s existence. He says that when "the fool" says that "There is no God" in the Psalms, he must therefore understand what he hears , and what he understands in his language by the term "God". Therefore, if he knows what God is, God must exist as it is impossible to know what something is if it does not exist. The atheist, as Anselm points out, is able to understand the phrase "being than which none greater can be thought." He concludes that if an atheist can understand this, then God is in the atheist's understanding.

Friday, October 11, 2019

In what ways is A view from the bridge like a Greek tragedy? Essay

In what ways is A view from the bridge like a Greek tragedy? Introduction In this essay I will be explaining in what ways "A View from the Bridge" is like a Greek tragedy by exploring what Eddie's tragic flaw is and how it influences his actions, sending him on a path of self-destruction that eventually leads to his tragic downfall. I will also be explaining which of the other characters and key events in the play have the biggest impacts on Eddie and his downfall. In the opening scene of the play, the audience is shown the setting of the play, which is the harbour area of Brooklyn near the Brooklyn bridge. When it shows Eddie with Beatrice and Catherine their use of dialogue initially suggests to the audience that they get along well and that there is a general 'happy family' atmosphere. The scene gives the audience the impression that Eddie is a good man who seems perfectly happy with his life since he has the dignity of a job that he likes and the love of his family. The audience also find out that Eddie is not related to Catherine which is an important fact to remember about him. Even though Eddie is not Catherine's real father he is still extremely over-protective of her, which suggests he may feel a bit too strongly for her and it is this love which is in fact the tragic flaw that eventually leads to his downfall. But this unlawful love does not come out into the open until it is sparked off by a metaphorical catalyst in the form of Beatrice's cousin Rodolpho. The first hints of this love that are given to the audience are when they see Eddie's obsession with the way Catherine dresses, for example when she comes in wearing a new dress and he says: " I think it's too short " He then goes o... ...uld be going on, perhaps a little. It didn't even cross her mind that she was a potential 'rival' to Beatrice; 'He said you was jealous?' Heidegger enveloped badman2k3's structuralism hypothesis. When Catherine falls in love with Rodolfo, Eddie cannot stand this, and does everything in his power to stop it, as his subconscious desires tear him apart slowly. He even calls the immigration bureau and risks his respect (which means so much to him) for her. I feel that both Eddie and Catherine were partly to blame for the tragic end of their relationship and in general. However, Catherine gained her confidence and independence a little more toward the end of the play. Eddie's possessiveness and dominance over Catherine suffocated her into staying a 'baby', but I feel she could/should have been more self- aware, especially of the situation around her.

Cause And Effects

A cause and effect essay aims at explaining the reasons and results of an event or situation. It is one the most popular essay types in the academic world. It is beneficial for a student to write a cause and effect essay because it propels him to think of the situation in depth to come up with the reasons for the birth of that situation and its eventual impact on everything it affects. It encourages the mind to think analytically and investigate a situation in its true light.Writing a cause and effect essay needs key understanding of the topic and keen attention to detail. It may seem like it is an easy thing to do but you cannot go far beyond the introduction if you do not put analytical skills into writing it. Such types of essay basically targets two main points, why the event or situation took place and how did it made its impact. You have to remember to concentrate your cause and effect essay to revolve around these two points and do not let it deviate from its main focus.Cause and effect are two approaches that are closely related so it is sometimes a bit tricky to differentiate between the two. Therefore, it is imperative that you understand the topic properly before approaching it. You should choose an excellent cause and effect topic; the one that you think you can pull off easily as you understand it in more depth than other topics. This topic should help you relate one event to another, ultimately revealing its causes and effects.You should aim at writing it in such a way that it keeps the reader hooked on to it, keeping them on the edge of their seats. Here in this article, we have jotted down some outstanding examples of the cause and effect topics. You can choose the one that suits you the most and goes along well with your writing style. But, do not forget that it should clearly be defined in the context of its cause and effect.

Thursday, October 10, 2019

Health and Safety in the Workplace Essay

Health and Safety play a very important role in the workplace today. Many organizations take the responsibility of their employees’ safety and health seriously due to the various affects that could stem from a lack of providing a safe work environment. During the 20th century our nation has become a world leader in setting an example for the world involving the workers right to a safe and healthy environment. Because of the various laws and research conducted in the United States, there have been countless number of accidents that have been prevented and thousands of lives saved because of awareness. I, being a Safety Coordinator and a workplace accident survivor, know firsthand the importance of safety in the workplace and the negative outcome for employees and organizations that do not practice a safe work environment. I would like to take this time to give a little information on my personal experience on workplace accidents and the importance of safety in that environment. In 2007 I was employed as a bridge carpenter working for a large construction company in Biloxi, MS. As a bridge carpenter is was exposed to many dangerous and high risk situations that put my life at risk on an everyday basis. I felt this company actually cared about the safety of their employees. We were provided with every piece of safety equipment that was needed to perform our job as safely as possible. The equipment was fairly new and OSHA approved. If it was found to be inadequate, it was immediately removed out of service and either fixed or replaced. Not to mention every morning we conducted toolbox safety meeting and equipment inspections. This particular day of my near fatal accident, we were setting rebar cages for columns maybe 30 to 40 feet in height. It was my responsibility to climb the cage, after it was set on the footer with a crane, to unhook the rigging from the crane. I had all the proper PPE (personal protective equipment) on and the cage had been secured at th e bottom by come along rigging devices. As I climbed the cage and Unhooked the rigging from the crane, the cage began to sway from side to side. Before I could start my descent, the cage and myself still attached to it with three different positioning, fell in the water, which by the way was the Gulf of Mexico. As my feet touched the bottom I began to panic and fight to free myself by unhooking myself from the cage. Several of my co workers jumped in the water to rescue me, but they were unable to locate my body. But they were able to locate the cage I was attached to. Thanks to quick thinking they were able to hook the crane cables back to the cage and hoist the cage and I out of the water successfully. But by this time I was not breathing and had no pulse. They lowered me on a crew boat and began to perform CPR. The CPR was unsuccessful so they began to take me to the dock where the ambulance was awaiting my arrival. During the time of the boat ride, I suddenly began to cough up water and slowly came to my senses. I was taken to the hospital and was blessed that I did not sustain any major injuries. During the accident investigation it was found that the cage we were setting was not the correct one for that particular footing and one of the come along holding it in place was functioning properly to catch the cage as it began to fall. This is when I actually began to take workplace safety seriously and start my career in that field. During the course of this paper it is my intent to present key components of workplace safety and health and provide new insight and personal experience that has and will affect my career and personal life and lives of those around me. The Role of Safety and Health in the Workplace Workplace safety is the practice of an employer using preventative measures to prevent hazards to the employees’ health and personal safety. This practice includes creating plans and procedures for employees and managers in the workplace. In addition, workplace safety involves creating policies and keeping emergency materials available for employee and manager use while at a work site. Workplace safety has caused strikes, contract negotiations and concerns among the different labor unions. These groups have negotiated union contracts and initiated lawsuits on behalf of workers who have an unsafe workplace. The Union Auto Workers created â€Å"Workers’ Memorial Day† as a day to honor workers who are killed on the job in the United States. David Micheals, the new head of OSHA, made this profound statement â€Å"these catastrophic events are powerful reminders of the risks faced by workers across the country every day. Fourteen workers die on the job each day, far from the headlines, often noted only by their families, friends, and co-workers.† (Markowitz & Rosner, 2011, p.26) Manufacturing jobs are heavily mentioned on this day due to the dangers of operating machinery or equipment. Workplace safety in many businesses requires additional training for the employees and management. This can include a lecture by an expert, hand-on training or a tour of the grounds and materials. For example, an employee whose job requires the use of a machine is not only trained to use the machine, but he is typically trained on how to operate machinery to avoid injury, dismemberment or death. The employee can also be trained on what to do if a co-worker injures herself on the job. As I stated in the introduction of this paper, I know firsthand the importance of safety and health in the workplace. By understanding the role of workplace safety and its history, employers and employees are able to apply these safety concepts to their everyday work related routines. I have learned that workplace safety and health reach far beyond the OSHA Act of 1970. Safety involves adopting a way of thinking and a way of functioning in all environments. Organizations such as unions have fought for workers right to a safety and healthy work environment. The campaigns they have fought so diligently to win have proven to be effective in fighting diseases like tuberculosis, typhoid, and smallpox that not only for the workplace but also for the general public. (Markowitz & Rosner, 2011, p.27) Occupational Safety and Health Administration In 1970 Congress passed into law The Occupational Safety and Health Act which formed the Occupational Safety and Health Administration or (OSHA). This act â€Å"declared that every worker is entitled to safe and healthful working conditions, and that employers are responsible for work being free from all recognized hazards†.(Silverstein, 2008, p.416) Even forty years later, many people still do not believe that OSHA is up holding the standard in workplace safety and health for which it was designed to do. Today a worker still becomes injured or sick from a dangerous job every 2.5 seconds plus a worker dies from a workplace injury or illness every 8 minutes. The National Institute for Occupational Safety, also known as NIOSH, has authority for workplace safety and health matters at federal workplace locations. In the federal workplace environment, NIOSH has an enforcement authority that corresponds to the authority OSHA exercises over workplaces operated by private sector emplo yers. In some instances, state-run programs supersede OSHA authority, and the Occupational and Safety and Health Act of 1970 encourages the development and operation by individual states of workplace safety and health programs. However, to qualify for this exemption to OSHA authority, a state-run program must establish standards and enforcement criteria that match or exceed the effectiveness of the federal OSHA program. As of April 2010, 26 states and U.S. territories have such programs in place with 23 of those 26 covering state and local government workplaces as well as workplaces operated by private sector employers. The Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977 established mandatory health and safety standards and directed the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare and the Secretary of Labor to create improved health and safety standards to protect the health and welfare of coal miners in the U.S. The Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) established a national minimum wage, guaranteed time-and-a-half for overtime in certain types of jobs, and prohibited employers from hiring minors. Today the FLSA helps to enforce and protect the rights and wages of non-exempt employees. I do not have much experience working directly with OSHA but as an OSHA outreach trainer, I have become accustom to understand the importance and impact they can and do have in a workplace environment. Working as a safety coordinator for several different contractors has given me an insight as to how some organizations adhere to OSHA regulations and how other organizations do not. With this insight and from knowledge gained from this course, I see that we still need stay focused on continuous safety awareness and to ensure OSHA enforces the laws and regulations for violators. By understanding the history and the need for the Occupational Safety and Health Administration in our society, I have a greater enthusiasm to perform my job functions as a safety coordinator at a higher level and expect the people around me to adhere to the same level of faithfulness. Safety Issues In The Workplace Safety issues are an important topic in today’s workplace, especially with the rise in accidents in places of work and business. Accidents may often be small, but they can also lead to life-altering results such as mutilation and even death. The most common type of safety issue in workplaces relates to tripping and falling, however, there are many other causes to be considered. An organization with a superior policy for dealing with safety issues should be considering topics such as ergonomics and the arrangement of the space so that the tasks best fit the people who complete them. In this discussion the focus will be on three in particular which are repetitive stress injuries, workplace stress, and substance abuse. In today’s society, there are many jobs that require sitting at a work station all day. Employees that perform these types of jobs run a higher risk of being injured by chronic and repetitive motion task, like typing on a keyboard, eyestrains, lifting or mov ement injuries, poor ergonomics or workstation accidents. (Lowe, 2012, p.104) Majority of musculoskeletal injuries and pain affecting office workers are a result of sitting for long periods in the same position performing the same or repetitive motions. I have learned that the key to prevention and treatment of these problems is reducing muscle and tendon overuse. A great method to reduce these injuries from happening would be massage therapy. Massage therapy allows the tendons to release pressure that has built up throughout the day or work hours. Another treatment method would be employees do daily stretches at their workstation. When I began working as a carpenter, every morning we would start the day out by doing a series of stretches to loosen our muscle the same way an individual would if they were preparing to exercise. Work related stress is another major safety issue that affects the workplace. Workplace stressors like interpersonal conflict and work overload can have a profound effect on the health of an organization’s employees. â€Å"Findings indicate that work overload and interpersonal conflict mediate the impact of role stress on emotional exhaustion, job attitudes, and behaviors.† (Boles, Jaramillo, Mulki, 2011, p.329) Interpersonal conflict happens due to the negative social interactions between co-workers in the workplace. Also interpersonal conflict is one of the most important stressors at work due to the effect it has on employees’ emotions and their ability to work as a team. Work overload is the employees’ perception that the job is placing excessive work demands on them. In today’s workforce employees are pressured to deliver greater output while using fewer resources. Overloaded individuals often experience feelings of impatience and being rushed, which in turn affects the quality of their interactions with co-workers. â€Å"Because of rising unemployment rates, layoff survivors are more likely to experience larger workloads because they now perform both their former workload and that of those who left.† (Boles, Jaramillo, Mulki, 2011, p.329) From my experience interpersonal conflict and work overload can have a big impact on the health of all employees with no regard to title, pay grade, or seniority. These stressors can cause emotional, mental, and physical health issues for all they affect. Through newly found knowledge, I have gained a greater understanding of the effects that workplace stress can have on an organization’s employees and how they interact with one another. Organizations can counteract these stressors by providing additional support to individuals who are being affected by these workplace stressors and conducting workload/interpersonal conflict evaluations bi annually. â€Å"Handling problems of substance use and abuse at work are some of the most challenging issue s confronting employers.† (Dwoskin, 2012, p. 32) The law requires employers to provide a safe, healthy and productive work environment to employees, but it also requires employers accommodate the needs of substance abusing employees. This could cause a conflict, because the substance abusing employees may be causing the health and safety issues in the workplace. Employers have the right to insist on a drug and alcohol free workplace and to take disciplinary action against individuals who violate the zero tolerance rules. Under the law â€Å"employers may hold alcoholics and recovering addicts to the same performance standards as other employees.† (Dwoskin, 2012, p.32) This means that employees that abuse drugs and alcohol may be discharged or held to disciplinary action based on tardiness, absenteeism, and poor job performance. But on the other hand, the ADA says they cannot be discriminated against if they are found to be disabled. The ADA defines discrimination as â€Å"not making reasonable accommodations to the known physical or mental limitations of an otherwise qualified individual with a disability† (Dwoskin, 2012, p.34) During the course of my research of this particular issue, I learned effect that substance abuse in the workplace can have on the safety of that individual and the people around them. I also learned that in certain situations that a person abusing drugs and alcohol can be protected by the ADA if they are found to be disabled and the employer must accommodate their disability in the workplace. I have known several instances where employees have failed random drug screens and have been able to keep their jobs. But in those instances the employer required the employee to seek professional help in dealing with their addiction. Safety Programs â€Å"A safety program can best be described as a dynamic set of intervention activities implemented at a worksite where the aim is to prevent incidents and accidents at the workplace† (Bjerkan, Olsen, Naevestad, 2009, p.391) These safety programs are usually comprised of activities such as safety training, equipment and housekeeping inspections, safety meetings, and safe behavior observations. There are five key components to a properly structured safety incentive program. The first component involves using an entire campaign to promote your program by building teamwork thru interaction with the employees. The next component is establishing an award vehicle that should be handed out weekly. The third component states to award employees with merchandise rather than money. Usually when employees receive money as a reward they tend to forget the reward and wee the money went to. But when an employee is rewarded with merchandise, they can recall how they received it and this enco urages them to win again. The fourth component says to promote the program using items such as posters, caps, balloons, newsletters, flyers, parties, and company drawings. The last component states to make everyone a winner. It might seem to cost more, but it will pay off in the long run by promoting the idea that everyone that practices safety in the workplace is a winner. Wellness is a lifestyle that encourages good physical and mental health. It is a balanced lifestyle that includes an emphasis on the body, mind and spirit. Wellness Programs were created to encourage all faculty, staff, and retirees to live healthier lifestyles and create a culture of health throughout the organization. Workplace wellness includes organizational policies designed to facilitate employee health including allowing flex time for exercise, providing on-site kitchen and eating areas, offering healthy food options in vending machines, holding â€Å"walk and talk† meetings, and offering financial and other incentives for pa rticipation, among many other options. In the course of researching safety programs, I have learned new techniques that will enhance my knowledge in designing safety programs in the future. Working of several different companies has allowed me to be exposed to different types of safety incentive programs. I have seen what does work and also what does not work. During the course of this paper it was my intention to present key components of workplace safety and health and provide new insight and personal experience that has and will affect my career and personal life and lives of those around me. By exploring the role of safety and health in the workplace I have gained greater understanding of its history. I can now assist employers and employees to apply these safety concepts to their everyday work related routines. In researching OSHA, I discovered a greater knowledge of the importance of the OSHA Act of 1970 and the administrative offices that have developed from the Act. Offices such as OSHA and NIOSH were established to up hold the laws and standards set by the OSHA Act in the workplace. My knowledge has grown during the development of this paper which has allowed me to view different aspects of safety and health that I previously did not have knowledge of. References Dwoskin, L.L. (2012). Substance Abuse in the Workplace: ADA and FMLA Issues to Consider, Part II. Employee Benefit Plan Review, 66(8), 32-38 Jaramillo, F., Mulki, J., & Boles, J. S. (2011). WORKPLACE STRESSORS, JOB ATTITUDE, AND JOB BEHAVIORS: IS INTERPERSONAL CONFLICT THE MISSING LINK? Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 31(3), 339-356 Lowe, W. (2012). Keying Into Office Worker Injuries. Massage & Bodywork, 27(4), 104-107 Markowitz, G., & Rosner, D. (20110. FROM THE TRIANGLE FIRE TO THE BP EXPLOSION: A Short History of the Century-Long Movement for Safety and Health. New Labor Forum (Murphy Institute), 20(1), 26-32. Doi10.4179/NLF.201.0000005 Moran, R.E. (2012). WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH: Better OSHA Guidance Needed On Safety Incentive Programs. GAO Reports, 1-46 Olsen, E., Bjerkan, A., & Naevestad, T. (2009). Modeling the effects of a large-scale safety Culture programme: a combined qualitative and quantitative approach. Journal Of Risk research, 12 Silverstein, M. (2008). Getting Home Safe and Sound: Occupational Safety and Health Administration at 38: American Journal Of Public Health, 98(3), 416-423 Stanley, J. (2012). Osha’s Warning on Safety Incentive Programs Are Wide of the Mark. EHS Today; Vol. 5 Issue 10, p. 63-64

Wednesday, October 9, 2019

Female offenders are more likely to be referred to psychiatric Essay

Female offenders are more likely to be referred to psychiatric counselling than men. Discuss, taking into account the impact of gender stereotypes in the criminal justice system - Essay Example That, however, does not mean that women are more likely to be referred to psychiatric counseling than men. It appears that, as the number of female inmates continues to increase, prisons and jails fail to catch up with the pace of change in inmate demographics. Like many years ago, the criminal justice system lacks resources needed to meet women’s health needs. The corrections system continues to ignore the health care needs of female prisoners, turning mental health complications into the most viable explanation to women’s criminal acts. That women-offenders are more likely than incarcerated men to display the signs and symptoms of mental health complications has been abundantly established. The current state of research provides a wealth of information concerning the most serious mental health challenges faced by incarcerated women. Understanding the mental health trends in women offenders is crucial for the development of more relevant criminal justice frameworks and detecting the stereotyping and bias affecting female inmates in the corrections system (Freudenberg 2002). According to Covington (2007), when it comes to mental health, 73% of female inmates in state prisons display the signs of mental health disorders, compared to only 12% among the general population. 75% of those who meet the criteria for mental health disorders also display the symptoms of substance dependence or abuse (Covington 2007). This is probably why the largest percentage changes in delinquency have been noted in female youth (Cruise, Mar see, Dandreaux & DePrato 2007; Snyder & Sickmund 2006). However, the link between mental health complications and crimes committed by female offenders are beyond the scope of this discussion. More important is the current state of mental health in women-prisoners and its implications for the criminal justice processes affecting the corrections system. In this sense, the results